Salt Consumption and Health

Sodium is abundant in most foods and can be described as natural food salt. Sodium accounts for the most part of table or common salt. Salt, or sodium chloride, is used in food preparation because of its flavoring properties, as well as in food storage so as to prevent conditions like mold growth or infestation. tuz tüketimi ve sağlık
Should not add salt to food before tasting and should avoid excessive salty foods!


Sodium provides some health benefits as it plays a role in balancing fluids in organisms and in regulating blood pressure. Still, it must be taken into consideration that the overuse of salt is related to high blood pressure, or hypertension. Excessive salt consumption increases the discharge of calcium through urine, resulting in a loss of calcium from the bones. It is known that calcium loss increases the risk of osteoporosis and bone fractures. Therefore, don’t add salt to foods before checking their flavor, and avoid foods high in salt.

- Limit the salt you add to food.

- Balance your salty, ready-to-eat foods consumption frequency and amount. Many condiments, including pickles, ketchup, mustard, olives, and soy sauce, have high salt content. Stay away from these foods, or use them very rarely.

- Keep your weight in balance. As weight increases, so does blood pressure.

- Increase physical activity -- increased activity to balance body weight, lower blood pressure, and reduce the risk of chronic diseases.

- Eat more fruits and vegetables. Vegetables and fruits are low in salt content and calories, and are rich in potassium. Potassium is important in the regulation of blood pressure.

- Be sure to read the labels of ready-to-eat foods. Choose salt-free or reduced-salt products.

- Don't keep a saltshaker on the table. - Opt for spices, parsley, mint, thyme, dill, fennel, and basil instead of salt.

- If you eat out, ask for your meal to be prepared with less salt.

- Drink plenty of water. - Water is generally low in sodium. Check the labels of bottled water and mineral waters for salt content.

- Food contains enough natural sodium to meet your daily needs.

- Table salt is enriched with iodine.

- Only a small amount (1/4 teaspoon) of iodized salt satisfies your daily iodine requirement. - Store iodized salt in closed, translucent containers, as iodine readily sublimes.

- Be sure to read labels on ready-made foods. Choose products that are low in salt content.

- Use salty spices and salt-added vegetable broth sparingly.

- If you eat out, select foods with a low salt content.

- Take some salt with water in case of diarrhea, which depletes salt and water levels in the body.

- Sweating leads to sodium loss. During physical labor or excessive exercise in extremely hot weather, gradually increase your daily salt intake with water.



How to cut down on salt?

Salt is one of the vital minerals for life and found naturally in food. It has essential duties in regulating blood pressure, adjusting body fluid balance, and in muscle and nerve functions. Caution should be exercised when using additional salt, which is found naturally in food. It is of major importance that patients with particularly hypertension or cardiovascular diseases restrict daily salt consumption.

According to the study published by the Turkish Society of Hypertension and Renal Diseases in 2012, daily consumption of salt in Turkey is around 15 grams. According to the 2012 WHO guidelines on sodium intake in adults and children, the recommended daily salt intake should be below 5 grams. These figures make it evident that salt consumption levels are high in Turkey.

The way to cut intake is to limit the salt added to meals and eat less high-salt foods such as pickles and crackers. Recent studies show that salt consumption can also be lowered by adding spices and fresh herbs to meals. Research at the University of Reading in the U.K. demonstrated that the various herbs and seasonings used in low-salt ready-to-eat soups were part of the reason they were preferred by consumers. A reduced amount of salt in ready-to-eat soups resulted in consumer dissatisfaction, however the addition of fresh herbs and spices to low-salt soups elicited positive feedback about taste.

In the study, 160 people were grouped according to their age, sex and socioeconomic status. Participants’ daily sodium intake was measured through an eating frequency survey and urine samples. Three groups were given tomato soup. The first group tried tomato soup with the standard amount of salt. The second group was given soup that had 57 percent less salt, but supplemented with spices and herbs such as oregano, bay leaves, garlic and black pepper. The last group was presented with tomato soup that had 57 percent less salt than the standard soup, but no extra seasoning. It was concluded that the group that tried the tomato soup with fresh herbs and spices every day for five days or longer “tasted the salt,” bringing up the level of approval for this soup.

Researchers in Brazil conducted a similar study with individuals of regular and high blood pressure. They gave a variety of breads of different salt concentrations to participants aged from 63 to 79. People with the highest blood pressure preferred the saltiest bread. Two weeks later, they added oregano to the bread with the same salt concentration. With the addition of oregano, the participants’ preference for this saltier bread decreased. In conclusion, the addition of spices and fresh herbs had an effect on eating preferences.

As these two studies demonstrate, the amount of salt can be reduced in bread across the board to limit the use of salt in our country. Additionally, you can create your own personal “salt revolution” by seasoning your food with spices and herbs. This will mitigate problems such as high blood pressure, while allowing you to enjoy your meals without compromising the flavor.

References:
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0195666314002372
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jch.12365/abstract
http://www.eufic.org/page/en/show/latest-science-news/page/LS/fftid/Herbs_spices_useful_approach_reducing_salt_content_soup/
http://www.eufic.org/article/en/page/FTARCHIVE/artid/salt-potassium-blood-control/
http://www.turkhipertansiyon.org/tuz_280512.php
http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/77985/1/9789241504836_eng.pdf?ua=1
Dietary Guidelines for Turkey, 2004




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